Image acquired by the VENµS satellite, 2018, over the Zin Valley, Negev Desert, Israel
 
Scientific Mission
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ISRAEL
 
 
 
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The Scientific Mission of the VENμS Program
 
Prof. Arnon Karnieli
 
 
מעבדה לחישה מרחוק
 
 
 
ISA
 
 
 
CNES
 
 
 
CESBIO
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agreement Sign
 
 
 
Vegetation and Environmental New Micro Spacecraft (VENμS)
 
Agreement Sign
 
12 April 2005
 
 
 
Venµs System Components
 
 
 
  • Satellite
 
  • Bus -based on IAI/MBT-SPACE platform
  • Supper-spectral camera –El-Op (CNES responsibility)
  • Hall Effect Thrusters (IHET) -RAFAEL
 
  • S-Band Station –MBT-SPACE
  • Technological Mission Center -RAFAEL
  • Launch Vehicle -CNES.
  • Ground Receiving Station at KIRUNA -CNES.
  • International Scientific Center -CNES
  • Israeli Scientific Center -BGU
 
 
 
Mission Characteristics
 
 
 
  • Orbit: near polar, sun-synchronic (constant view angle)
 
  • Altitude: 720 km
 
  • Inclination: 98.27°
 
 
  • Revisit time: two days
 
 
 
Picture2
 
 
 
 
 
  • Swath: 27.56 km
 
 
 
Picture2
 
 
 
 
 
  • Spatial resolution: 5.3m
 
 
 
Picture2
 
 
 
 
 
  • Number of spectral bands: 12 (VIS-NIR)
 
 
 
Picture2
 
 
 
 
 
  • Tilting capability: +/-30° across and along track
 
 
 
Picture2
 
 
 
 
  • Radiometric resolution: 10 bits
 
  • Equator crossing time: 10:30 AM, descending mode
 
 
  • Mission start/duration: 2018, ³ 4.25 years
 
 
 
Picture2
 
 
 
 
Mission Characteristics
 
1 Aug. 2017
 
 
 
Objectives of Missions
 
 
 
The VENµS program consists of two missions:
  1. Scientific mission;
  2. Technological mission
 
 
The overall aim of the scientific mission is to acquire frequent, high spatial resolution, multi-spectral images of 110 sites all around the world.
 
 
 
Objectives of Missions
 
 
 
 
  • 12 spectral bands in the visible and near infrared region;
  • 2-days revisit time in a constant view angle;
  • 5.3 m spatial resolution;
 
 
 
Payload
 
 
 
 
The payload includes:
 
  • a scientific component:
the superspectral camera.
 
 
 
Payload
 
 
 
 
  • a technological component:
 
the Israel Hall Effect truster (IHET).
 
 
Payload
 
 
 
Payload
 
 
 
 
 
 
Band Setting
 
 
 
Band Setting
 
 
 
Band Location
 
 
 
Band Location
 
 
 
Band Location
 
 
 
Band Location
 
 
 
Main Applications
 
 
 
Main Applications
 
 
 
Scientific Applications
 
 
 
Scientific Applications
 
 
 
Land Applications
 
 
 
 
Land Applications
 
 
 
Land Applications
 
 
 
 
 
 
Main Application - Vegetation Indices
 
 
 
 
Main Application - Vegetation Indices
 
 
 
Picture13
 
Picture14
 
 
 
 
Main Application - Vegetation Indices
 
 
 
NDVI
 
 
 
NDVI
 
 
 
Advanced Vegetation Indices
 
 
 
 
Advanced Vegetation Indices
 
 
Atmospheric Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI):
 
Picture15
 
 
 
Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI):
 
Picture16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Forest Variables
 
 
 
 
Leaf Area Index
 
 
 
Fractional Vegetation Cover
 
 
 
 
FPAR
 
 
 
Red Edge and Chlorophyll
 
 
 
Red Edge line shifts to longer wavelengths during plant growth and to shorter wavelengths when the plant is under stress and during senescence;
 
Red Edge and Chlorophyll
 
 
 
Red-Edge Bands Setting
 
 
 
Red-Edge Bands Setting
 
 
 
Red Edge Position
 
 
 
Red Edge Position
 
After Guyot and Baret, 1988
 
 
 
REIP for LAI Assessment
 
 
 
 
Red Edge Position - Wheat
 
 
 
Red Edge Position - potato
 
 
 
 
 
Red Edge Position
 
 
 
Red Edge Position
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nitrogen in Wheat and Maize
 
 
 
Nitrogen in Wheat and Maize
 
 
 
Chlorophyll Index
 
 
 
Red Edge Band Setting
 
 
 
Soil Indices
 
 
 
 
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(Karnieli, 1997)
 
 
 
Soil Indices
 
 
 
 
 
Picture30
 
Picture31
 
(Ben-Dor et al., 2006)
 
 
 
Soil Indices
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water Applications
 
 
 
 
Water Applications
 
 
 
Water Applications
 
 
 
 
 
 
Coastal and Inland Water Applications
 
 
 
 
Coastal and Inland Water Applications
 
Monitoring chlorophyll that indicates pollution or sediments transport.
 
 
 
Coastal and Inland Water Applications
 
 
 
 
 
 
Coastal and Inland Water Applications
 
 
 
 
Coastal and Inland Water Applications
 
Monitoring chlorophyll that indicates pollution or sediments transport.
 
 
 
Coastal and Inland Water Applications
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water Spectra
 
 
 
Water Spectra
 
 
 
Atmospheric Applications
 
 
 
Atmospheric Applications
 
Atmospheric Applications
 
 
 
Water Vapor Bands
 
 
 
Water Vapor Bands
 
 
 
Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT)
 
 
 
Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT)
 
 
 
Aerosol Optical Depth @550 nm
 
 
 
 
Aerosol Optical Depth @550 nm
 
 
 
Monitoring aerosols such as dust, biomass burning smoke, volcanic ash, or anthropogenic air pollution.
 
Picture42
 
 
 
Aerosol Optical Depth @550 nm
 
 
 
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
 
 
 
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
 
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
 
 
 
Digital Elevation Model
 
 
 
Digital Elevation Model
 
 
 
VENµS Camera
 
 
 
VENµS Camera
 
 
 
Venus DEM
 
 
 
Duplication of 638 nm band, with such an arrangement in the focal plane that the line of sight of the two 638 nm bands differs by an angle of 1.45 degree (Δt = 2.7 sec).
 
Venµs DEM
 
 
 
DEM Application
 
 
 
From this small stereoscopic effect it will be possible:
  • to generate elevation, slope, aspect, drainage basin, etc.;
  • to detect clouds by their altitudes.
 
DEM Application
 
 
 
Revisit Time Advantages
 
 
 
Revisit Time Advantages
 
Revisit Time Advantages
 
 
 
GSD Vs. Off-Nadir Angle
 
 
 
GSD Vs. Off-Nadir Angle
 
 
 
Dynamic Land Cover / VI Monitoring
 
 
 
Dynamic Land Cover / VI Monitoring
 
CESIBO
 
 
 
Land-use & land-cover Classification
 
 
 
 
Land-use & land-cover Classification
 
 
 
Classes are separated by using their spectral and temporal profiles.
 
CESIBO
 
 
 
 
 
Time series of images increases the classification accuracy.
 
 
 
Land-use & land-cover Classification
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pollution Dispersion –11 –25, June 2001
 
 
 
Pollution Dispersion – 11 – 25, June 2001
 
 
 
Cloud Mask
 
 
 
VenµS combines 2 methods for clouds detection
 
 
Multi-temporal analysis of the surface reflectances
 
Cloud Mask
 
 
 
Clouds altitude detection by stereoscopy, computation of the location of clouds shadows
 
Cloud Mask
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product Levels
 
 
 
Product Levels
 
 
 
Location of International Sites
 
 
 
Location of International Sites
 
 
 
Strips over Israel
 
 
 
Strips over Israel
 
 
 
VENµS Strips and Agriculture Areas
 
 
 
VENµS Strips and Agriculture Areas
 
 
 
Parks, National Reserves, and Forests
 
 
 
 
Parks, National Reserves, and Forests
 
 
 
Parks, National Reserves, and Forests
 
 
 
 
 
 
LTER Sites
 
 
 
LTER Sites
 
 
 
Water Reservoirs
 
 
 
Water Reservoirs
 
 
 
Imaging over Israel
 
 
 
 
West Strip
Start: 10:30 AM
12 tiles, 36 sec
Forward view
 
Camera standby 35 sec
Satellite maneuvering
 
East Strip
5 tiles, 20 sec
Backward view
 
Camera standby 40 sec
Satellite maneuvering
 
South Strip
10 tiles, 30 sec
Backward view
 
Total: 27 tiles, 161 sec
 
 
 
Imaging over Israel
 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary
 
 
 
Uniqueness of the VENµS system:
 
  1. Combination of high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions;
  2. Technological payload.
  3. High spatial resolution for monitoring individual fields and provide information for precision farming.
  4. Several bands, including along the red edge for assessing the state of vegetation;
  5. Several bands for assessing water quality.
  6. High revisit time to acquire rapid changes of vegetation and water quality, as well as for cloud mask.
  7. Duplication of the red band to produce DEM;
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thank You!
 
 
 
Thank You!
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
update: 22 May 06
 
 
 
 
Science from above
 
 
 
מעבדה לחישה מרחוק